Thursday, May 24, 2018

5-LOX & Aging

"Because of the projected aging of the human population, the burden from diseases of aging is expected to increase dramatically over the next 20-25 years. The identification of a putative common molecular mechanism influencing these diseases and amenable of a therapeutic modulation would result not only in an improvement of the quality of life for this segment of the population but also in a significantly reduced socio-economic impact of these diseases. The fact that the 5-LO is significantly increased with aging, which associates with the development of cardiovascular as well as neurodegenerative diseases, makes this enzymatic pathway an excellent candidate that fulfills these criteria." (Chu, 2009)

5-Lipoxygenase (5-LO, 5-LOX) is an enzyme which oxidizes polyunsaturated fatty acids and converts them to pro-inflammatory molecules known as leukotrienes. Specifically the 5-LOX enzyme has been tied to the production of leukotrienes LTA4, LTB4, and LTC4. 5-LOX activity increases with aging, and studies have associated this enzyme's activity with various diseases for which aging is an increasing risk factor including arthritis, cardiovascular disease, and neurodegenerative disease. 

The Boswellia serrata extract is the first selective, direct, non-competitive and non-redox-type inhibitor of 5-lipoxygenase, the key enzyme for leukotriene biosynthesis. Experimental and clinical usage of Boswellia indicates it has none of the side-effects on blood pressure, heart rate, or the gastric irritation and ulcers associated with many anti-inflammatory and anti-arthritic drugs. (Legere, 2018)

Chu, J. & Pratico, D. (2009). The 5-Lipoxygenase as a Common Pathway for Pathological Brain and Vascular Aging. Cardiovascular Psychiatry and Neurology. Vol. 2009. 

Legere, J. & Legere, R. (2018). Dietary Sources of Inflammation. Legere Pharmaceuticals. Retrieved from:

Tuesday, April 10, 2018

Complete Digestion - Protein

Proteins are important nutrients that are used to carry out vital functions within the body. Many of the body's functions require amino acids, which are the building block of proteins. To access these amino acids, proteins must be broken down. 

The first step in this process involves pepsin. Pepsin breaks the bonds that hold together the proteins, breaking it down into chains of amino acids called peptides, which can then be broken down further by protease enzymes in the small intestine. Without the activity of pepsin, amino acids cannot be extracted and distributed via the blood stream. 

Tuesday, March 27, 2018

Dietary Tryptophan - An Inadequate Source Of Serotonin

Have you read the newest white paper? If not, check it out here. There's even more great news about 5-HTP:


Tryptophan is an essential amino acid, meaning it cannot be made by the body and therefore must be obtained from dietary sources. A typical diet provides about 1000mg of tryptophan, but that may not be enough for all the roles tryptophan plays within the body. For example, tryptophan can be used by the liver the create vitamin B3 (niacin). However it takes 60mg of tryptophan just to make 1mg of B3. Whatever tryptophan is left over still needs to attach to a transport molecule to get into the brain, but other amino acids are looking for a ride on those same molecules. As explained in the white paper, insulin will remove those competing amino acids. 

Even with a healthy diet very little tryptophan makes it to the brain, and that amount decreases with age or during certain disease states such as chronic inflammation. This provides at least one explanation of the increased depression, insomnia, and weight gain that is associated with aging.

5-HTP avoids the hurdles of tryptophan. As an intermediary in the conversion of tryptophan to serotonin, 5-HTP does not need to attach to a transport molecule and it can not be used for anything else so the brain is free to convert it to serotonin as needed. 

(source: )

Friday, February 23, 2018

The Gut-Brain Connection

Changes in the gut microbiome can have a therapeutic response which has led to the use of probiotics in traditional medicine since long before probiotics were identified and acknowledged as the mechanism of this response. As the use of probiotics grows, so to does the body of knowledge we have about the relationship between the microorganisms that inhabit our gut and our overall health. We are now able to realize the delicacy of our gut's environment. Negative changes to the gut microbiome result in altered activity of neurotransmitter systems & immune function which can be potentially detrimental and contribute to a number of disorders or conditions. Similarly, targeted positive changes to the gut microbiome may reduce the symptoms of and possibly even reverse certain conditions.

 Links have been made between gut health and depression, anxiety, stress, even sleep. A recent study tested this relationship in mice, which provide a very useful model of our own digestive and nervous system. The study found that treatment with a lactic acid producing strain of probiotic may help to reduce stress as well as depression and anxiety. The lactic acid producing bacteria "induced region-dependent alterations in GABAB1b mRNA in the brain with increases in cortical regions (cingulate and prelimbic) and concomitant reductions in expression in the hippocampus, amygdala, and locus coeruleus, in comparison with control-fed mice" and more importantly, "reduced stress-induced corticosterone and anxiety- and depression-related behavior" (Bravo, 2011).

Ongoing research is investigating whether gut bacteria are one reason for the mood symptoms in medical conditions.

Legere Pharmaceuticals carries a unique room temperature stable lactic-acid producing probiotic known as Bi-ProZyme to help replenish healthy bacteria contributing to better health. 

Bravo, J., Paul, F., Chew, M., Escaravage, E., et. al. (2011). Ingestion of Lactobacillus strain regulates emotional behavior... PNAS. Retrieved from:

Thursday, February 1, 2018

Sources of Hunger

The sensations of hunger and satiety are influenced by environmental and genetic factors, as well as specific centers of the brain - especially the hypothalamus. The hypothalamus receives signals from the gastrointestinal tract which influence eating behavior by effecting satiety and cravings.

What Causes Hunger?

Cause: Empty Stomach - One method that the brain uses to evaluate its energy needs is communicating with the stomach, via the vagus nerve. The stomach sends signals to the brain essentially telling the brain about its contents.

Solution: Carboxymethylcellulose expands in the stomach providing a physical feeling of fullness by giving the stomach the input it needs to tell the brain you are full. This can be a beneficial tool in attempting to learn better eating habits by making you feel full even when consuming smaller portions.

Cause: Hormones - Cholecystokinin (CCK) is a peptide hormone responsible for stimulating the digestion of fat and protein. CCK is secreted by the small intestine when we eat, triggered as a response to fat entering the duodenum, and interacts with specific neurons known to regulate appetite.

Solution: L-Phenylalanine is a natural amino acid that has been proven to cause increases in CCK resulting in a feeling of satiety. (For more on L-Phenylalanine and CCK, download our white paper INFLUENCING YOUR APPETITE)

Cause: Neurotransmitters - Certain foods can have an impact on our appetite beyond just energy balance. Carbohydrates, for example, increase serotonin production resulting in a feedback loop that teaches people to reach for a snack to make themselves feel better. This is what we refer to as "emotional eating".

Solution: 5-HTP has proved to be a useful tool in overcoming the chemical nature of appetite. By naturally increasing serotonin production 5-HTP provides a sense of well-being and satisfaction, and decreases appetite. 5-HTP may be especially effective in reducing the over-consumption of foods used for emotional reasons.

Wednesday, January 24, 2018

Weight Loss Excuse #2 - "I'm too sick!" #NoMoreExcuses

We've all experienced an unexpected illness that interrupts our plans. While it may be inconvenient to have to reschedule your skiing trip because of a fever, what if your plans are to GET HEALTHY? Catching the flu or even a cold can derail the progress you've worked so hard to make, leading some individuals to give up completely!

"But wait - Don't I lose weight when I'm sick?" Even if you've lost a noticeable amount of weight during that time, it is actually water weight that you are losing - and not the unwanted excess fat.

While sick you may experience a reduced appetite, but this just makes it that much harder to control your appetite when it comes back. Next thing you know, you are replacing the lost water weight with new fat - leaving you worse off then when you started!

The bad news doesn't end there. Research has shown that the very things you are doing to get health - calorie restriction and vigorous exercise - may harm your immune system. " The intensity and duration of exercise may affect your immune functioning." (

It is important to be proactive about your health, and the immune system is a key component. Healthy habits will contribute to keeping the immune system strong but using therapeutic levels of essential antioxidants we can gear up the immune system with the tools it needs for the fight against illness.

 • Vitamin C: An antioxidant that goes to work on the cellular level to protect against free radicals and to support cellular health. Vitamin C supports the function of immune cells throughout the body.

• Vitamin B6: Is essential for the proper function of the immune system. It helps stimulate the immune response and activates the synthesis of antibodies.

• Vitamin E: Naturally-occurring antioxidant that reduces the activity of harmful free radicals

• Vitamin A: A phyto-nutrient that works as an antioxidant on the cellular level to promote immunity and protect DNA

• Zinc: An essential nutrient that works as a trigger for over 200 diff erent enzymes and supports the number and function of several di fferent immune cells.

• Garlic: Boosts immune function by stimulating white blood cells, increasing antibody activity.

• Lemon/Citrus Biofl avonoids: Works synergistically with vitamin C; each increasing the other’s effectiveness.

• Copper, Selenium, Manganese, Magnesium: All minerals that support immunity

Tuesday, January 23, 2018

Weight Loss Excuse #1: "I'm too tired" #NoMoreExcuses

Low energy levels can affect each of us at times, particularly those who are overweight. This can be especially troublesome for weight loss patients by leading to low­ compliance. Often these patients are likely to reach for a snack such as a candy bar to gain energy which results in energy spurts followed by crashes and further weight gain as this constant snacking on carbohydrate­ rich foods can compromise one's metabolism. Far too often this is used as an excuse to give up on a weight loss program. Using natural tools we can eliminate this hurdle for #NoMoreExcuses! 

Potassium Gluconate: Potassium is required for the function of all living cells. Low potassium levels can lead to fatigue, muscle weakness, and cramps. Potassium is also beneficial for balancing fluid and electrolyte levels. Without potassium, you may experience weakness that could prevent you from physical activity. Increased levels of potassium promotes healthy bones and strong, well ­developed muscle.

Bee Pollen: Bee Pollen is considered one of nature’s most completely nourishing foods. It contains nearly all nutrients required by humans. The comprehensive nutrient profile makes Bee Pollen a great source of natural energy. Bee Pollen also contains Lecithin, which helps to eliminate body fat and stimulate the metabolism. Lecithin is a source of choline, which is essential for normal brain function including memory and muscle control.

Korean Ginseng: Rejuvenates and restores vigor, soothes the intestinal tract and helps to purify the blood. Ginseng has been used for centuries as a component of traditional Chinese medicine for its natural ability to increase energy, stamina, and circulation of the blood.

Guarana Extract: Guarana contains a compound known as guaranine, which is similar to caffeine in its chemical structure. Unlike the caffeine found in coffee, guaranine is released slowly resulting in an energy boost that can last as long as 6 hours without a sudden rush or crash.

Each of these ingredients is helpful for boosting energy levels on their own, but are even more powerful when used together. For a pharmaceutical grade and therapeutically dosed solution for  your low-energy patients, look no further than Legere Pharmaceuticals SUPER ENERGY


Wednesday, January 10, 2018

"Oral administration of adenosine is effective for improving metabolic syndrome-related parameters [...] [and] may prevent the progression of the metabolic syndrome" - PubMed - NCBI


What CAN'T It Do? 

Just yesterday we shared research that shows Adenosine Monophosphate is beneficial for activating the molecular pathway responsible for energy management: AMPK. Well the good news just keeps rolling in.

To further test the metabolic impact of supplemental AMP, researchers introduced AMP to a group of rats fed a high-fat diet. They found that the groups receiving regular doses of AMP had significant reductions in blood pressure, LDL Cholesterol (bad cholesterol), plasma glucose and insulin levels compared to placebo. Furthermore, levels of urinary 8-OHd, a well-established indicator of oxidative stress, were nearly halved in the AMP groups compared to placebo.

The researchers used rats known as SHRSP (spontaneously hypertensive stroke-prone) because they are known to exhibit spontaneous hypertension, hyperlipidaemia and insulin resistance. The efficacy of AMP in treating these biologically fragile specimens gives promise to the use of AMP as an effective therapy for similarly compromised human patients, such as those suffering from one or more of the following conditions: Obesity, Hypertension, Insulin Resistance/Pre-diabetes, etc.
Br J Nutr. 2010 Jul;104(1):48-55. doi: 10.1017/S0007114510000255. Epub 2010 Feb 23.

Anti-metabolic syndrome effects of adenosine ingestion in stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats fed a high-fat diet. 

Ardiansyah, Shirakawa H, Sugita Y, Koseki T, Komai M.



We have demonstrated previously that both acute and chronic oral administration of adenosine have novel functions such as anti-hypertensive effects and improved hyperlipidaemia in stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRSP) fed a normal diet. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of adenosine administration on metabolic syndrome-related parameters in SHRSP fed a high-fat diet. Six-week-old rats were divided into three groups, and were administered either water (control) or adenosine (10 or 100 mg/l) for 8 weeks. During this period, the rats had free access to a high-fat diet based on AIN-93M. The results showed that hypertension, plasma lipid, NO, insulin, glucose and urinary 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine levels improved significantly in both adenosine groups. The mRNA expression levels of genes involved in anti-oxidative activity and adenosine receptors were also altered in the adenosine groups. Administration of adenosine also increased plasma adiponectin levels, accompanied by upregulation of mRNA expression level of adiponectin and adiponectin receptor 1 in perirenal fat and adiponectin receptor 2 in the liver. In conclusion, oral administration of adenosine is effective for improving metabolic syndrome-related parameters in SHRSP, and accordingly it may prevent the progression of the metabolic syndrome. 
REMEMBER: For the highest quality form of AMP, ask your doctor about MYODEN from Legere Pharmaceuticals.

Tuesday, January 9, 2018

BURN fat, don't store it!

Researchers have discovered a molecular pathway for stimulating the body to burn fat. This discovery could be helpful in fighting obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular disease. 

To test this pathways, mice that have been genetically engineered to over-express this molecular pathway were fed a high-fat diet for 14 weeks. At the end of the study, the normal mice had rapidly gained weight but the genetically modified mice remained slim and did not have the same elevated insulin and triglyceride levels that the normal mice did. Further analysis found that the genetically engineered mice were in fact burning more fat.

What is this new miraculous molecular pathway responsible for these result? AMPK (Adenosine Monophosphate-Activated Protein Kinase). Researchers found that by boosting AMPK activity, the proteins PGC-1α and ERRα were activated - increasing the number and work rate of the cells' mitochondria. The end result is a metabolic reprogramming that switches the body from a fat storage machine to a fat burning machine.

Activated AMPK promotes all the processes needed to maintain a youthful profile. To further test the anti-aging properties of AMPK, researchers used fruit flies that, similar to the aforementioned mice, were genetically engineered to have higher levels of AMPK activity. The research found that the modified flies lived up to one-third longer than normal flies. "The life span benefit of these mutations depends upon increased AMP:ATP and ADP:ATP ratios and adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK). Transgenic expression of AMPK in adult fat body or adult muscle, key metabolic tissues, extended life span" (Stenesen, 2013).

The mechanism used to engineer increased AMPK activity in these test subjects was to genetically modify the flies to produce more adenosine monophosphate (AMP). As the name implies, increased levels of AMP results in increased levels of AMPK. However, one does not require genetic mutations to achieve the results of increased AMPK activity. Researchers have now confirmed that consistent dosages of oral AMP results in increased AMPK activity. In a study using lab rats fed supplemental AMP, "AMP effectively improved hypertension, plasma triglyceride, and HDL-cholesterol, glucose, kidney function parameters, hepatic lipid, enhances plasma nitric oxide, and plasma adiponectin..." (Ardiansyah, 2011). The researchers found that AMP up-regulated mRNA expression levels, affecting genes involved in B-oxidation, fatty acid synthesis, and AMPK. 

It is clear that AMPK activity is desirable for reducing the unwanted effects of aging. AMPK activity can be increased through exercise and proper nutrition however as we age, AMPK activity declines. This decline can be reduced and possibly even reversed through pharmacologic AMPK activation such as that achieved through supplemental oral AMP.

There are many products that claim to be AMPK activators, but only AMP has been proven in laboratory settings to directly increase AMPK activity via oral administration. For the highest quality form of AMP, ask your doctor about MYODEN from Legere Pharmaceuticals.

Myoden Spray

Ming, Yan., et. al. (2016). Chronic AMPK activation... Genes & Development.
Stenesen, D., Suh, JM., Seo, J., Yu, K., Lee, K.S., Min, K.J., & Graff, J.M. (2013). Adenosine nucleotide biosynthesis and AMPK regulate adult life span and mediate the longevity benefit of caloric restriction in flies. Cellular Metabolism. Retrieved from:
Ardiansyah, Shirakawa, D., Koseki, H., Saori, T., Yoshinobu, A., & Michio, K. (2011). Novel Effect of Adenosine 5′-Monophosphate on Ameliorating Hypertension and the Metabolism of Lipids and Glucose in Stroke-Prone Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry.

Wednesday, January 3, 2018

Hydroxycitric Acid - Carb Blocker

Hydroxycitric acid is found in the rind of Garcinia cambogia fruit. Research has found that this compound acts as a potent competitive inhibitor of the enzyme ATP Citrate Lyase. ATP Citrate Lyase plays a crucial role in carbohydrate metabolism and the Kreb's cycle as an intermediary in the creation of cholesterol and fat. 

Learn more about the weight loss benefits of Hydroxycitric acid in our white paper: WHITE PAPER